IT and Marketing Terminologies
ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming): it is one of the programming languages mostly for developing applications for systems like the SAP R/3.
Abandonware : generally refers to software which is no longer being supported or sold by its publisher.
Abend : is basically an abnormal, or rather unplanned, termination or end of a computer applications or programs because of some errors or problems
Access Control Layer : Baked into the Wi-Fi standards; specifies how a Wi-Fi device, such as a mobile computer, communicates with another Wi-Fi device,
Access List : also referred as access control list (ACL), is a list that is used for controlling the traffic on network devices. Access
Access Point : A broadcast station that Wi-Fi computers can communicate with. Also called "AP", "hotspot", and "base station". Access
Access Point/Router : This common hardware combination combines the functionality of a Wi-Fi access point with that of a network router.
Accoustic-Coupler : It is a hardware device, which enables a modem (a machine that converts analog signals to digital signals and back from digital to analog) to connects to particular voice circuit.
Acrobat : Acrobat is document exchanging software by Adobe Systems that provides a platform-independent path of creating, printing and viewing documents. Acrobat can convert Windows, UNIX or Macintosh, DOS documents into a (PDF) that is Portable Document Format which is displayed on any computer that has an Acrobat reader. The Acrobat reader also can be downloaded freely from the Adobe website.
Active Hub : referred also as a repeater, is a multi port network device which amplifies the LAN transmission signals, in addition to signal forwarding. In contrast to passive hubs, that only forwards the data signals to all the ports.
Ada : it is a Pascal-based programming language, which is structure and statically typed programming language. It is usually positioned to address similar tasks as that of C or C++, but they also have type-safety of a language similar to Java. It was designed to make computers able to control the automatic equipment, but it is now also utilized for other applications.
Add-On : which is also known as Add-in, it is a tiny program which runs in combination with other main applications just in order to expand and perk up the functionality of that particular application.
ADSL : Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is one type of the Digital Subscriber Line that is a data communications tool that enables fast data transmission rates over copper telephone lines than a traditional voice band modem provides. Most of small business and home users are connected to an asymmetric DSL (ADSL) line.
Adware (Advertising Supported Software): It is software package that downloads, plays or displays advertisements to a computer once the software gets installed on it or when the particular application is being utilized.
Adwords : AdWords are the Google's one of recognized P4P service. It offers you with related text-based ads on their site, and also on the external sites that are willing to horde Google ads. They are pure text on the Google site, and hence are difficult to block.
Affiliate : Website affiliates are programs that drive the Internet marketing. Various companies run the affiliate programs to generate high ranks and sales from some other Websites. These website affiliate programs were introduced in the late 1990s and since then they have brought Internet marketing to different level.
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) : It is a graphics card which is designed by Intel and that resides onto the motherboard of your computer. AGP ports usually run at 66 MHz and they the transfer data rate is up to 528 MB/sec.
AGP PRO : is an extension to the (AGP) that is Accelerated Graphics Port specification to offer additional electrical power to graphics add-in cards in the advanced graphic workstation. The definition of AGP Pro includes thermal envelope, extended connector, and mechanical specifications for cards, I/O brackets, as well as motherboard layout requirements
Alert Box : An alert box, also called as a message box, is basically a small window which pops on your computer screen to warn that your computer is about to execute an operation that will potentially damage your system.
Algorithm : An algorithm is precise set of rules used for solving a problem in a given number of steps. In computing, mathematics and related subjects, an algorithm is an effective tool for solving a problem using a fixed sequence of instructions. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and various other fields.
Amoeba : is a distributed operating-system. It is one of the powerful microkernel-based systems which convert a single-board computers or even group of workstations into a transparent distributed system. It basically runs on the SPARC (Sun4c and Sun4m), 68030, the 386/486, and Sun 3/60 and Sun 3/50.
Android : Android is a operating system that is developed by Google for mobile phones. It is now used by numerous smartphones, which include Motorola Droid, Google's Nexus One etc. The operating system is based on the open Linux kernel. Android phones usually come with many built-in applications and they also support many third-party programs.
ANSYS : ANSYS, a product introduced by ANSYS inc. and is a software package that is used in finite analysis of elements. It is largely used in fields including electromagnetic, structural work, fluid dynamics and thermal analysis, etc.
Anti-Adware : Anti-adware software refers to any algorithm or software utility that scans your entire system and removes all the adware, key loggers, spyware, trojan, and various other malicious codes from your system. Anti-adware can be a stand-alone software or may be a part of an anti-virus software.
Anti-Spyware is a form of computer malware that misleads users into paying for fake or simulated removal of malware.
Anti-Virus : Software that protects PCs from malicious computer codes.
Anti-X : generally refers to the anti-spyware, anti-virus, anti-phishing and anti-spam solutions. Besides this, Anti-X is a solution that is developed by GenNet Technology to guard certain Internet viewers against the increasing and fast-growing pornography contents on the Internet.
Antique Software : generally refers to development tools, applications, and systems software which, while they are no longer in use widely, are still of great interest. These application programs are usually available for downloading on the Web.
Application Program : In computer language, Application program, also referred as Application software or just Application, means complete and self-contained software which helps the users to accomplish a particular task. Application programs ought to be distinguished from the system programs like operating systems, that controls the computer and run these application programs.
Application Server : it is server software which manages one or more than one other software’s which makes available the managed software over a network, which is usually to a Web server. By using this software’s that manages other software packages makes possible to use resources such as memory and database more efficiently.
Archie : It is a program that is used for searching files that are stored on File Transfer Protocol servers. Archie is not used much now days because using it effectively; needs the exact file name that you're looking for. Most of the file searching is done via the Web with the Web browsers like Netscape or Internet Explorer.
Ardour : a Free Software that is released under the GNU which is General Public License, which is a professional digital audio editor and hard disk recorder application. At present runs on Solaris, GNU / Linux as well as Mac OS X.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol): It is a protocol that is used for mapping IP address to a particular computer connected to a LAN. Each computer has its unique physical address which is referred as MAC address, so this ARP converts the IP address to respective MAC address.
Array : An array is basically a data structure containing a group of similar elements. Usually all these elements are of the similar data type like a string or integer. They are normally used in most of the computer programs to arrange data making related set of values to be easily sorted or easily searched.
ASCII : It is acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is a common way of encoding data to transfer it to different computers. It is the most common character code used for microcomputers and data communications
Asf (Advanced Streaming Format) : It is a compressed file format which contains streaming audio and video. When you play ASF file, the content is delivered to you in a continuous data flow. One did not wait for the whole audio and video file to get fully downloaded. This file format is basically used to run on networks.
ASPack : is basically a computer compression utility mainly for Microsoft Windows operating systems. ASPack generally reduces the file size of various programs up to about 70%.
Assembler : A program that is used to convert the symbolically coded programs into object level, machine code. In an assembler program, there is a one-to-one correspondence between human-readable instructions and the machine-language codes.
Assembly Language : it is essentially a machine language which had numbers that were replaced by mnemonics that are easier to remember and to make it human-readable. The program which converts the assembly language to the machine language is referred to as assembler.
Autotote : It is an automated, computerized on-track and/or off-track betting system used for betting on horse races. It is generally an integrated system used for off-track betting, which keeps the track of race results and also winning tickets, and race simulcasting.
Avidemux : is basically an open-source free program that has being designed for multi-purpose video processing and editing. It is written in C/C++ language, using the GTK+ graphics toolkit, and so it is truly a platform independent, universal video processing program.
B2evolution : is a multi-user, multi-lingual, multi-blog publishing system that is written in PHP and is backed by a MySQL database. It is distributed under the General Public License and is available with no charge at all.
Backup : the backup basically means a copy made of one or more original files that is created as an alternative if suppose original data of files on the system are lost or somehow becomes unusable. You can save the backups to the USB flash drives, which protects all the files if the system hard drive is failed.
Baitware : Similar to freeware, baitware refers to the software that has very limited or may be defective functions that are made available free of charge. Baitware is generally released so as to deceptively attract the users and drive them to various commercial products.
Batch files : Batch files are those text file that contains one MS-DOS command on each and every single line of the file. When these are run, each of the lines executes sequentially. For example the batch file AUTOEXEC.BAT gets executed you’re your computer is booted, and a series of programs and controls are added. This types of files have the extension BAT.
Batch processing : A method of organizing work for a computer system, designed to reduce the overhead by grouping similar types jobs. Batch processing is serial execution of computer programs.
Beta-Test : It is the computer system test that is done prior to commercial release. IT is the last stage of testing, which normally involves sending various products to beta test sites out of the company for the real-world exposure or may be for offering the product a free trial download online.
Betbug : is a software application that can be downloaded which links together the users so as to share betting offers. It operates effectively as a betting exchange. BetBug's distributed network technology is generally derived from P2P File sharing.
BIOS : It is an acronym for basic input/output system and element of the operating system that offers the lowest level of interface to various peripheral devices. The BIOS is always stored in computers ROM.
Bit Comet : is basically a freeware client for the Bit Torrent. It sustains simultaneous downloads, selected downloads, download queue in torrent package, disk cache, fast-resume, chatting, speed limits, proxy, port mapping, ip-filter, etc. It even offers an embedded Internet Explorer window so as to make torrent searching more easy.
Bit Rot : is an informal computing term either used to illustrate gradual decay of any storage media or to superficially describe the spontaneous ruining of a software application over time. The later term used implies that software can factually wear out or even rust like any physical tool. Most commonly, bit rot means the decay of physical storage media.
Bit Torrent : It is basically a peer-to-peer protocol for file sharing designed to decrease the bandwidth that is required to transfer the files. It is done by distributing the file transfers across various systems, thus by decreasing the average bandwidth that is used up by each computer.
BitLord : is basically a BitTorrent client. It offers support foe simultaneous downloads, selected downloads, download queue in torrent package, chatting, fast-resume, disk cache, speed limits, ip-filter, port mapping, proxy, etc.
BITMAP : In computer graphics, a bitmap is a type of memory organization or image file format that is used to store digital images. It is a graphical image, which is composed of pixels, or dots. The Web sites display bitmaps.
Blackberry : A mobile tool that supports wireless voice and data capabilities, that includes email, Web browsing, and also various contact and other task management applications. Blackberry is basically the product name of Research in Motion (RIM).
Blog : the term refers to a list of all the journal entries that are posted on a Web page. Anyone who has knowledge about how to create and publish Web pages can publish ones own blog. It is very simple to create a blog and so many people have made their presence on the web.
Blog Client : also referred as web log client, it is the software that manages blogs from operating system without the need to launch any web browser. Typically a blog client has its editor, a spell-checker and some more options which simplify the content creation as well as editing.
Bluetooth : A short-range connectivity solution designed for data exchange between devices such as printers, cell phones, and PDAs that use the 2.4GHz spectrum. Bluetooth is incompatible (meaning, does not work) with any of the 802.11 wireless networking standards.
Bookmark : A way of flagging your favourites websites in your browser.
Boot Prom : stands for Boot programmable read-only memory (Boot PROM) and it is a chip that is mounted on a printed circuit board which is used to provide various executable boot instructions to your computer device.
Boot sector : It is a dedicated section of the hard disk drive or some other storage device which contains data that is used to boot your computer system. It comprises of master boot record, which is being accessed during the boot process. It is usually located at the beginning of your disk.
Bootstrapping : is a word used in computer programming. It is used to illustrate the various techniques included in writing a compiler (or assembler) in the target programming language that is intended to compile.
Bridge : A device that connects two networks together and passes traffic between them depending on the node address, so this traffic between the nodes on one network does not appear on the other network. One way to conserve this network traffic is to slice the network up into smaller segments and these segments are connected to the bridge.
Broadband : A high-bandwidth internet connection, fast delivery of Internet services. The predominant means for the delivery of broadband are cable and DSL.
Brouter : In computer network, it is known as a bridge router and is basically a layer-2 device which divides a network into different collision segments or domains while keeping the broadcasting and sharing features inside the same domain or segment.
Browser : A program for navigating the internet.
Bug : In the computer terms, a bug is an error occurring in a software program. It causes a running program to quit unexpectedly or may be behave in an inadvertent manner. A much serious bug may even cause the programs or applications to crash or hang due to some infinite calculation or may be because of memory leak.
Byte is a unit used to represent digital information in computing and telecommunications. It is an ordered set of bits, in which each bit denotes the binary value of 1 or 0.
Cabinet-file : In a Microsoft program development, a cabinet file is one single file that is created to hold a several number of compressed files. A similar set of cabinet files could be included in a folder. While installation of a application or program, these compressed files present in a cabinet are first decompressed and then they are copied to their appropriate directory for the users.
Cable : Broadband Internet delivery over the same cable that is used to bring in television content, primarily to residential subscribers.
Cache : It is the 32-bit driver disk cache in Windows ME and Windows 9x that replaces the MS-DOS Smartdrv and has capability of changing dynamically depending on the available disk space and memory that an application requires.
Cache Server : It is a dedicated network server or service acting like a server that saves the Web pages or some other Internet content locally. Just by placing request of previous information in the temporary storage, or cache memory, a cache server helps to speed up both access to data as well as reduces demand for an enterprise's bandwidth. These cache servers even allow the user to access content offline that includes rich media files or some other documents. A cache server is many a times called a "cache engine"
Cad (Computer Aided Design): The CAD software is used almost for all the three-dimensional designing. The software helps the designers to turn any object into an electronic representation which more accurate and is also done fast than by diagramming them with a paper and pencil. Also you can move, rotate and resize the objects created with in CAD software instantly.
Card reader : It is a generic term for a computer input device that reads your flash memory cards. It may be standalone device which connects your computer via USB drive or it may be incorporated into a computer or printer. Now a day’s most of the multifunction printer, copiers or scanners are offered with built-in card readers.
CATIA : is the CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software suite which is developed by Dassault System’s and is marketed world-wide by IBM. It is referred commonly as 3D PLM software. It provides open development architecture through various interfaces which is used to customize or develop several applications.
CD-ROM : A device that can read Compact Disks, but it cannot write to them. It is durable and low cost circular optical storage device extensively used to store large amounts of information.
CD-RW (Compact Disc Re-Writable): It is blank CD which can be written by a CD burner. In contrast a CD-R, you can write to CD-RW several times. The data ones burned on a Compact Disc Re-Writable cannot be changed, but you can erase that. So you need to completely erase your CD-RW each time you need to change the files on it or add some new data.
CDMA : the acronym for Code division multiple access is an access method employed by a range of radio communication technologies. Frequency can be reused whereby many radios use the same frequency but each one has a unique code in a cellular technology.
Cedega : previously known as WineX, is a TransGaming Technologies proprietary fork of Wine that is designed specially for running games written for Microsoft Windows under Linux.
Centrino : Notebooks with chips made by Intel that feature integrated Wi-Fi.
Client : A device or program connected to a server of some sort. Typically, a client is a personal computer connected to a server computer that relies on the server to perform some operations.
Client-Server Network : In a client-server network, a centralized server computer controls and polices many of the basic functions of the network, and intermediates the communications between the computers on the network.
COBOL : It is the Common Business Oriented Language. The language was developed back in 1959 and is still used by few businesses. Even though it is fairly portable, it is still not preferred by most of the professional programmers just because COBOL programs are physically quiet longer than the equivalent programs those written in any other language used commonly.
Codec : Codec is acronym for Coder/Decoder. It is basically a software or a driver that offers support for specific video/audio format to your operating system. Basically it is a piece of software or a driver that adds a support for certain video/audio format for your operating system. With codec, the system recognizes the format for which the codec is built for and also allows you to play the audio/video file.
Cold Booting is one of the type of restarting your system or operating system. Cold booting is when the system is started after having been switched off.
Compiler Bug : is a kind of computer bug. Compiler bug might cause translating the source program wrongly, so when the program runs it generates the wrong answer or some kind of error message which does not really relate to the original program.
CONFIG.SYS : It is the primary configuration file generally for the MS-DOS and also for OS/2 operating systems. It is a special type file, which contains configuration or setup instructions for your computer system. The commands included in this file configure DOS for using devices and other applications in the computer system.
Connectivity is defined as a state of being connected. With regards to computer it is the status regarding whether two computers are communicating with each other over a local network or over the Internet. When two computers are communicating with each other, there is said to be "connectivity" between them.
Cookie : It is actually a small file that a web page on some another machine writes to your machine's disk to enable it to store various bits of data and information. Most people detest cookies strongly and the whole idea behind them and most of the browsers allows reception of the cookies that are disabled or at least they are selectively disabled.
Cubase : It is a MIDI, music sequencer and a digital audio editing computer application which is commonly known as a DAW - Digital Audio Workstation. It is created by the German firm Steinberg in 1989. Cubase started as a MIDI editing and recording tool. Cubase originally was written for the Atari ST, and has since been ported to Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh.
Cyber crime : it is a criminal activity performed on computers using the Internet. This includes everything from downloading malicious or illegal music files to robbery of money from your online bank accounts. Cyber crime even include non-monetary offenses like distributing viruses on network or putting some confidential business data online.
Cygwin : is a compilation of free software tools developed by Cygnus Solutions to enable various editions of Microsoft Windows to operate somewhat like a UNIX system. It mainly aims at porting the software to run on POSIX systems (like Linux systems, UNIX systems and BSD systems) so that to run on Windows with more than a recompilation
Daemon : In UNIX system and other computer multitasking operating systems, a daemon is a computer program which runs in the background instead of working under the direct control of a user. They are typically instantiated as processes. The Daemon program is often started at the time the system boots and runs continuously without any intervention from any of the users on the system.
Data Breach : is typically an event in which your sensitive, protected or even the confidential data has been potentially stolen, viewed or used by any individual who is unauthorized to do so. Data breaches may entail personal health information, trade secrets, personally identifiable information, or may be intellectual property
Data Corruption : It is the worsening of computer data and information as a result of an external agent. Hazards to the integrity of data includes not only computer problems like viruses, failures, and hardware or software incompatibility but even the environmental threats like power surges, dust, extreme temperatures and water.
Data Dredging : Also referred to as "data fishing" sometimes, is a data mining process or practice in which huge volumes of data are examined seeking for any possible relationships between the data. Sometimes it is conducted for some unethical purposes; data dredging often avoids traditional data mining methods and may even lead to premature conclusions.
Data transfer rate : It is commonly used to measure the speed at which data is transferred from one position to another. For instance, a hard drive might have a utmost data transfer rate of say 480 Mbps, whereas your ISP might offer you an Internet connection of maximum data transfer rate of just 1.5 Mbps. Data transfer rates are usually measured in bits per second.
Debug : means to detect, trace and eliminate errors in computer programs. A debugger is a computer program that is used to test and debug other computer programs. So in short it is the process of testing programs in order to detect mistakes and eliminating them, before the programs are made available to users.
Desktop : A desktop is a computer system designed to sit in single position on the desk somewhere and that is not meant to move around. Almost all the general purpose computers that we use are desktop systems. Desktop systems do not imply anything about its platform.
Digital : It is one of the data transmission process that transforms your analog signals like voice, into series of optical or electrical pulses which represents binary digits 0 and 1. Digital networks offer much superior Quality of Service, also more secure transmission and larger bandwidth than analog lines.
DHCP(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) : a standard for assigning dynamic Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to devices on a network.
DMZ (Demilitarized zone) : An isolated computer or sub network that sits between an internal network that needs to remain secure and an area that allows external access.
DNS (Domain Name System sometimes called Domain Name Service) : translates more or less alphabetic domain names into IP addresses.
Dot Pitch : It is the measurement unit which is used to determine the sharpness of the display of a CRT that is Cathode Ray Tube monitor. It is usually measured in millimeters and smaller the number is, the finest the picture. Mostly the CRT monitors have a dot pitch which is between .25 and .28.
Drive : it is device used for storing and retrieving back the data. Few of the drives like disk drives, tape drives and zip drives are capable of writing new data on them, but some others like DVD-ROMs or CD-ROMs do not. Some drives have random access while some others have only sequential access.
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) : It is a kind of RAM which stores every single bit of data on a single or separate capacitor. It is a very efficient way to store the data in memory, since it requires little physical space to store the same amount of information than static storage system.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) : a technology used to deliver broadband Internet services over telephone lines.
DVI: A purely digital video connection
DVD(Digital Video Disk) : An optical storage medium with higher capacity and bandwidth that compact disc. It is also known as digital versatile disc.
Downloading means transferring files from some other computer to your computer. In terms of web it is transferring files from web server to web client.
Dual-Core : A dual-core processor is a CPU with two processors or you can say two “execution cores" in one integrated circuit. Each of the processor has its own controller and cache, due to which it functions efficiently like a single processor.
Dual-Layer : Holds twice as much data as an ordinary DVD by adding an extra layer.
Dynamic Page : It is a hypertext document which is rendered to World Wide Web. It is the page on which the information on the web pages changes or it is changed automatically. Search engines will index the dynamic content in a similar way to static content.
Dynamic websites : The website that contains Web pages which are generated in real-time are dynamic websites. These pages comprise Web scripting codes like ASP or PHP. Most of the large websites are dynamic, because they are much easier to maintain than those of static websites.
E-commerce : that is electronic-commerce which refers to online business. Web sites for example Amazon.com, eBay, Buy.com etc are all e-commerce websites. The two forms of e-commerce are one is Business-to-Consumer and other is Business-to-Business (B2B).
Encryption Key : The key used to encrypt the transmissions of a Wi-Fi network protected by WEP; the password needed to access the Wi-Fi network.
ECC (Error Correction Code) : It is basically used to confirm data transmissions by correcting and locating various transmission errors. It is normally used by RAM chips which include forward error correction that ensures that all the data that is being sent to the RAM and from the RAM is correctly transmitted.
Edge Router : It is generally related to asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks; it is a device that routes the data packets through more than one local area networks (LANs). An edge router can be considered as an example of an edge device and can be referred to as a boundary router.
Ethernet : it is a type of local-area network used for high-speed communication among computers. It is a common method of networking computers in a LAN. It is a most widely used cable-based technology used for transmitting large amounts of electronic data between computers within a LAN
Expansion card : it is basically a printed circuit board which can be installed on the computer to add extra functionality to it. For instance, a user can add a new graphics card to computer to provide more 3D graphics power for processing. Generally expansion cards are installed in the PCI slots.
FAT(file allocation table): this is a file system based on the file allocation table maintained by some operating systems, including Windows NT, 2000 and XP PRO, to keep track of the status of various segments of disk space used for file storage.
FAT32 : A derivative of the file allocation table files system. FAT32 support smaller cluster sizes than fat in the same given hard disk space, which result in a more efficient space allocation on FAT32 drives.
Fax Server: is a system that is installed in a (LAN) local area network server that enables computer users those are connected to the LAN network to receive and send fax messages. The fax messages are stored as graphics, printable word processing, database, or even as spreadsheet files.
Fibre Optic Cable : It is a cable that consists of center glass core which is surrounded by different layers of plastic, which transmits data using light instead of electricity. These cables have the capability to send and receive more amount of information and that too over much longer distance.
File Server : File server is generally a Server Computer containing the applications, data, and it also gives logon access to all other computers present on the network. If your file server is dedicated one then only it can be connected to the client/server network.
Firefox : also identified as Mozilla Firefox, is a free, cross-platform, open source, graphical web browser that is developed by the Mozilla Corporation and other hundreds of volunteers. Firefox contains an integrated pop-up blocker, open source, tabbed browsing, live bookmarks, support for various open standards etc.
Firewall : A security system, usually a combination of hardware and software, intended to protect a network against external threats coming from another network, including the internet. Firewalls also audit network activity, recording the volume of traffic, recording the volume of traffic and information about unauthorised attempts to gain access.
Firmware : Software routines stored in a read-only memory (ROM). Unlike Random Access Memory (RAM), ROM stays intact even in the absence of electrical power. Start-up routines and low-level input/output (I/O) instructions are stored in a firmware.
Flaming : It is s the act of sending or posting offensive messages on the Internet. These messages which are called as "flames," might be posted through online discussion forums and newsgroups, or they can be sent via e-mail or even through instant messaging programs.
Flash : it is a basically a multimedia technology that is used for creating various animations and different interactive websites. Flash is often used by Web developers to add the dynamic content which is not possible with HTML and some other scripting languages.
Flash Memory : it is type of memory which electrically erasable programmable read only memory. Flash memory is commonly used to store the BIOS settings of computer's ROM. When BIOS is required to be changed, the flash memory is written in blocks instead of bytes which make updating easy.
Format : It is the way in which the computer data is stored that is its organization. For instance, SVHS, VHS and Beta are few different formats for video tape. Computer information can be almost stored in several different formats, and can be represented as text, graphics, sounds, animations etc.
Freeware : software that is often downloadable from the internet, which is free to keep and use.
FTP (File transfer Protocol) : A process that provide file transfer between local and remote computers. The FTP client is installed with the TCP/IP connectivity utilities.
Ftp Client : is basically a software that is installed on a workstation which use the FTP protocol so as to connect to an FTP server for transferring files. Basic FTP clients are the part of the operating systems, including DOS, Windows, Linux and UNIX.
Gateway : A device used to connect networks using different protocols so that information can be passed from one system to the other.
Geeklog : It is Open-Source software which works as a Weblog, Web Portal or CMS. Geeklog is generally written in PHP and it uses MySQL for backend database. Geeklog enables you to create ones own virtual community with user administration, customized look story posting, calendar, comments polls, content syndication, web links and more.
GB (Gigabyte) : A measure for storage capacity: usually hard disks.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) : which is a compressed image file format. GIFs are generally based on indexed colors. That is a palette of almost 256 colors. This format helps greatly reduce the file size. GIF files are good for small icons as well as for animated images. But one drop back of this format is they lack the color range that is usually used for high-quality photos.
GHZ (Gigahertz) : A measure of how fast the processor in your pc works. One gigahertz equals one thousand megahertz (MHz).
GNAVI : is an open source, visual development software environment that is licensed under the GPL. The international standard for engineering that is Ads is the language foundation of GNAVI. GNAVI with Microsoft Windows provides comparable features to Visual Basic and Delphi including usage of Active X controls and capability to interface with Java and .NET.
GPS (Global Positioning System) : the worldwide radio satellite-based navigation system that provides three-dimensional position, time and velocity information to the users those having GPS receivers placed anywhere on or near to the surface of the Earth.
Graphics are visual presentations that are done on some kind of surface, such as a canvas, computer screen, or paper to brand, inform or illustrate some information. Examples are drawings, graphs, diagrams, typography, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images.
Greyware : is a malicious code or software that is considered to fall into the "grey area" that is between the normal software and a virus. Greyware is a term used for which all the other annoying software or malicious codes like adware, spyware, etc fall under.
GSM (Global system for mobile communications) : It is basically a kind of digital cellular or PCS network. It is a digital cellular phone technology which is based on TDMA and it is the predominant system in Europe, but it is also used worldwide
GUI (Graphical User Interface) : is a kind of user interface that allows users to interact with programs in various ways than typing such as computers; hand-held devices such as MP3 Players, Portable Media Players or some Gaming devices; even your household appliances.
Hacker : In computer networks, the term hacking is referred to any technical effort that is made to manipulate the normal operations of network connections and the systems connected to the network. A hacker is a person who is engaged in hacking. Hacking and hackers are mainly associated with the malicious programming attacks made on the Internet and other computer networks.
Handshaking : A process performed by modems, computers and terminals to verify that communication has been established between them correctly. It is a process by which two devices start communications. Handshaking begins when one device sends a message to another device signifying that it wants to establish a communications channel.
Hard disk : One or more inflexible platters coated with material that allows the magnetic recording of computer data. A typical hard disk rotates at up to 7200 revolutions per minute (RPM), and the read/write heads ride over the surface of the disk on a cushion of air 10 to 25 millionths of an inch deep. A hard disk is sealed to prevent the contaminants from interfering with the close head-to-disk tolerances.
Hardware : The physical components of a computer system, including any peripheral equipment such as printers, modems and mouse devices.
Hot Spot: An Area covered by a wireless network
HTML (Hyper Text Mark-up Language): is a language used to write the web pages. Web pages must follow the HTML rules in order to get displayed correctly in the web browser. It is used to create documents on World Wide Web.
Hub : A simple wired device used to connect computers on a network.
HyperTalk : It is a high-level programming language that was created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and was used in conjunction with the Apple Computer's HyperCard hypermedia program. HyperTalk scripts are much similar to English language, and it uses a logic structure same as the Pascal programming language.
ICMP : It is an acronym for Internet Resistor Note Protocol. It is an error reporting and a diagnostic utility and is also considered as a required part of any Internet Provider implementation. Routers, hosts or intermediary devices uses ICMP to communicate error information or updates to some other routers, hosts or other intermediary devices.
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol): It is way of accessing your e-mail messages on the server without the need to download them on to your local hard drive. This is the major difference between IMAP and various other popular e-mail protocols like "POP3." POP3 needs to download the messages to the hard drive before the user reads it.
Input device : it is a hardware device that sends data and information to your computer. So without input devices a computer device would be simply a display device that would not allow the users to interact with each other. For example your keyboard and mouse are the input devices.
Internet : is a global network of interconnected computers that communicates using TCP/IP protocol and enables data transmission. It is collection of network that links hundreds of computers and users across the world.
Interrupt : It is a suspension of a process, such as the execution of a software program, caused by some external event to the computer. It is performed in such a way that the running process can be resumed back.
IP address : A hexadecimal tuplet that denotes a node on the Internet or other network.
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture): it is one of the older technologies used for connecting the computer peripherals. It was used to connect devices that include modems and sound cards. ISA is slower than PCI, therefore PCI devices are better choice generally.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) : A company that provides you with an internet connection.
Jabber : In networking, Jabber means any faulty device typically a NIC that continuously transmits some corrupted or even meaningless data onto a network. This may lead to denial of service of the complete network from transmitting information since other devices will recognize the network as busy.
Javadoc : is one of computer software tools introduced by Sun Microsystems for generating the API documentation into HTML format using Java source code. Javadoc is a industry standard used for documenting Java classes.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) : it is named behind the committee that has developed this format. It is actually a compressed file format. JPEG compression format is better for compressing graphics than GIF compression using photographic color depth.
kernel : The basic layer of the operating system is referred as kernel. It provides the very basic low-level services like software-hardware interaction as well as memory management. The operating system will run more efficiently if the kernel is more efficiently
LAN (Local area network) : such as the network in your Computer Repair or small office.
Laser(Light Amplification By Stimulated Emission Of Radiation): It is a optical device that generates intense monochromatic beams of coherent light.
Laptop is portable and a personal computer that has been designed for mobile use, which is small and light enough to sit on persons lap. It designed so that it works nearly similar to desktop computers. They use AC power or batteries and intended to use while traveling.
LocalTalk : refers to a communication protocol which is invented by Apple Corporations. LocalTalk uses CSMA/CA method of media access and it transmits data with a speed of about 230 kilobits per second.
Log file : A log file is the file that contains a record of events generated by a software program or output of a hardware device. Most of the log files are saved in simple plain text format, which enables them to be viewed in a basic text editor. Log files can be generated by software installers, Web servers, or a various other applications.
MAC (Medium access control layer) : See also access control layer
MAC Address : Unique identification number of each Network device.
MAC filtering : Creating a secure Wi-Fi network by using the MAC address of each Wi-Fi device on the network (and only allowing devices with a known MAC address).
Macintosh is the name of the computers that are developed by Apple Computer. It was first introduced in 1984 and was seen as a major innovation in computing ease-of-use.
Macro : In computer science a macro is an abstraction, which defines how a particular input pattern is substituted by an output pattern depending on the defined set of rules. There are three different categories of macros, and each one takes up different sort of input pattern so as to produce a different sort of output pattern.
Magnetic disk is digital media that uses some kind of magnetic material to store data. Both hard disks and floppy disks are kinds of magnetic disks.
Malware : A generic term for software designed to perform harmful or surreptitious acts.
MB (Megabyte) : This is a measure of memory storage capacity.
Memory Card : Removable Storage Card.
Memory Stick : It is a removable flash memory card that was launched by Sony in October 1998, and in general it is used to describe the whole family of Memory Sticks. The family involves the Memory Stick Pro that allows maximum storage capacity and quick file transfer speeds and the Memory Stick Duo; it is small-form-factor edition of the Memory Stick. In general, a Memory Stick is used as a storage medium for a portable device that can be easily removed for access by a PC.
Megapixel : A measure of the level of details recorded by a digital camera.
Meta tags : These tags are the HTML or XHTML elements, which provides structured metadata about a Web page. Such elements must be placed as tags in the header section of HTML documents.
Modem : Short for modulator-demodulator. A modem is a device that lets a computer transmit data over telephone or cable lines, and connects your cable or DSL Internet service to your computer or your network.
MTU : In computer networks, it is the size of the largest packet that a network protocol can transmit. These MTU parameters are typically associated with a communications interface like serial port. Standards for example, Ethernet can fix up the size of an MTU; or even the systems can decide MTU at connect time. A higher MTU brings greater efficiency.
MS-DOS is a single user operating system that runs one program at a time that is limited to work with one megabyte of memory. Here, 640 kilobytes of memory is usable for application programs. It is the operating system developed by Bill Gates for use on personal computer.
MP3 : A standard for compressing digital audio.
Multimedia : This indicates a ability to work with and to integrate various things that includes audio, still graphics, and particularly the video. The Amiga was a first ever multimedia machine. For now in addition to AmigaOS, Solaris and IRIX are most popular choices for the high-end multimedia work.
NAT (Network Address Translation) : Translates local network addresses to ones that work on the Internet.
NC (Network Computer) : The network computer refers to any computer system usually desktop which is designed to work in a network rather than using it as stand-alone machine. This enables us to save money on your hardware as well as the software, and even the maintenance by taking full advantage of the facilities available already on the network.
Network : is a group of interconnected systems like electronic components or circuits that communicate with each other. For example take a group of computers interconnected within an office is refered to as a network.
Network Adapter : A network adapter is a device that interfaces computer to a network. Modern technology network adapter hardware comes in several forms. Besides these traditional PCI Ethernet cards, some of the network adapters are PCMCIA devices or even USB devices.
Network Router : These are the physical devices that link together multiple wireless or wired networks whose basic task is to duplicate or copy the packets from one network to other network. The routers operate that the third layer of OSI model that is at the network layer.
NOS (Network Operating System) : It is an operating system that is designed to transfer the information or data and to communicate between one or more computer system. For example, AppleShare, Windows NT Server and Novell NetWare.
NusBus : it is a 32-bit parallel computer bus, developed originally at MIT as a small part of the NuMachine workstation projects. It is ultimately used by Apple Computer and NeXT Computer. But it is now no longer widely used.
Offline is a term that is related to computer technology and has a specific meaning. It basically describes a system, which is not connected to any network at a moment. When a system is said to be offline it means it is disconnected from the network.
Organizer : it is a tiny computer that is basically used to store names, numbers, addresses, and also the date book information. They generally have an ability to exchange some information with your desktop systems. They boast much better battery life usually than PDAs but are not much capable.
OS (Operating System) : Governs the way hardware and software components in a computer work together.
OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model : A seven-layer architecture that standardizes levels of service and types of interaction for computers exchanging information through a network. It is used to describe the flow of data between the physical connection to the network and the end-user application, this model is the best known and most widely used model describing networking environments.
Patches : A software file or collection of files that fixes problems with an existing software application by making minor changes to a program.
Partition : As the name suggests a partition is basically a section of a hard disk drive. While formatting a hard drive, usually you can choose the number of partitions you need to format. The computer recognizes every single partition as separate drives, and all these drives are displayed "My Computer".
PC Card : Card that fits in the PCMCIA slot that is present on most laptops. Also called PCMCIA cards.
PCI Card : Card that fits into the PCI expansion slot inside a Windows desktop computer.
PCMCIA : Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, which is the name of the organization that has devised the standard for cards than can be added to laptops.
PCMCIA slot : Also called an expansion slot, used to add PC cards to a laptop.
PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) - handheld computer-: It is a very small battery-powered computer which can be carried all around rather than leaving it on the desk. PDAs normally have feature called instant-on and most of them are grayscale rather than color due to battery life issues.
Peer-To-Peer Network : In a peer-to-peer network, computers communicate directly with each other.
Peripheral : Computer peripherals are external devices that give input as well as output to the computer system. For instance, a mouse and keyboard are input peripherals, while the printer and monitor are the output peripherals. Theses are also called as “I/O devices" since they give input as well as output to the computer.
Pharming : Pharming is one of the hacking techniques where the hacker hacks the DNS that is Domain Name System servers which tends to send all the traffic intended for one particular site to some other fake site. Pharming might be used to steal information on credit cards hence it is a serious threat to the websites that provides internet banking or eCommerce services.
Phishing : Email fraud that attempts to trick users into revealing personal information such as login details.
Physical Topology : The way a network is connected.
PPPoE : Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet.
Processor : The chip that is the brain of the computer.
Program : A program is basically a series of different instructions for a computer, informing it what to do, when to do or how to behave. Program is also a verb which means to create particular program, and the programmer is one who does programming.
Protocol : An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between devices.
Punch Card is a card on which data is recorded in the form of punched holes. It contains digital information represented by absence or presence of holes.
Cyber crime : generally refers to software which is no longer being supported or sold by its publisher. Most of the abandonware are still considered as illegal to sell unless and until the publisher has re-released it as freeware.
RAID : It is an acronym for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks, which is a way of creating a fault-tolerant storage system. It is a technology, which allows higher level of storage consistency from low-priced and low reliable PC-class disk-drive modules, by using the technique of arranging various devices into arrays for redundancy.
RAM (Random Access Memory) : Used to temporarily store instructions and information for the microprocessor of a computer or other device.
Random Access : it is also referred as "dynamic access" which indicates that the data can be accessed or selected without the need to skip over the previous data. This is the way how your CD, DVD, record or laserdisc behaves, it is easier to play selectively a particular track without fast forwarding the earlier tracks.
Refresh Rate : is the speed at which the monitor pictures are flashed in front of your eyes. Slow refresh rates displays a noticeable flicker whereas higher refresh rates gives a steady picture.
Rootkits : Rootkit is the malicious software that is used to acquire the access of the administrator to the operating system of a particular the target computer. The Unix systems administrator account had a username root and this root user had all the rights on the operating system. This the way how Rootkits got the name as the basic task was to obtain access to the system.
Router : A router is a device that directs traffic between one network and another, for example, between the Internet and your Computer Repair network.
Script : A script is basically a series of different OS commands. The word "batch file" means the same, but it is a bit dated. Scripts are run similar to programs, but they tend to perform simple tasks. When a particular script is run, it is always interpreted.
Search Engine Spiders is a program that a search engine uses to find out information on World Wide Web. The goal of search engine spider is to supply the search engine which it belongs to with the most current updates and material possible.
SEO : it basically stands for Search Engine Optimization. It is a practice of designing web pages such that they get higher rankings in search results from various search engines. There are basically two types “good” SEO and "bad" SEO. Good SEO is all about making web page that describe the subject including information like Meta tags etc. Bad SEO is an attempt to deceive people in making them believe that the page is more applicable than it actually is by adding inaccurate Meta tags to the webpage etc.
Serial port : it is a type of connection on computers which is used for peripherals like mice, modems, gaming controllers and older printers. It is also called a COM port or even referred as RS-232 port that is its technical name.
Server : A computer on a network that stores shared information.
Sneaker-Net : It refers to manual method of file sharing where in the files are copied from a computer generally to floppy disk, that are transported to a second computer by a person walking physically to the second computer, and transferring manually the file again from floppy disk to that second computer.
Socket 7 : it is an older connection format for CPU that was been used by the Pentium, Pentium MMX, also by all the AMD K6 and later CPUs, and various Cyrix CPUs as well. Generally slot 1 CPUs are not used on these motherboards, also not on Socket 370 CPUs. These CPUs are typically flat squares that rests parallel to the motherboard.
Software or Computer software is a universal term mainly used for digitally stored data or any type of information that is written or read by computers. Software is that part of computer which cannot be touched.
SOHO : Small office or Computer Repair office.
Spam : Junk emails sent to large group of people.
Sparc : It is a RISC processor which is developed by Sun. The design was released to the world, and currently it is produced by various different companies. A couple of different operating system’s run on machines based on SPARC, including SunOS, Solaris and Linux.
Spyware : Software installed (usually surreptitiously) as part of another application installation, specifically to monitor and report back on a computer's use.
SSID (Service set identifier) : used to identify the "station" broadcasting a Wi-Fi signal. (also called the network name, or wireless network name). Apple calls the SSID for their AirPort products the AirPort ID.
Standard : Used in engineering to mean the technical form of something such as a message or a communication. See also protocol
Static IP Address : An IP address that does not change.
Switch : An intelligent hub used to connect computers on a network.
Tag : In computer programming language a tag refers to a command or instruction that is inserted in a document specifying how the document, or a section of the document, must be formatted. Tags are usually used by all the format specifications storing documents as text files.
Tag Ram : It is a special area of static RAM used to hold the addresses. The actual data is generally stored in different parts of the cache, which is called the data store. Tag RAM is generally used with hardware devices like CPU caches that keep track of which memory address is stored in the cache.
TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol): An industry standard suite of protocols providing communications in a heterogeneous environment. In addition, TCP/IP provides a routable, enterprise networking protocol and access to the internet and its resources. It is a transport layer protocol that actually consists of several other protocols in a stack that operates at the session layer. Most network support TCP/IP as protocol.
Thumbnail : A small image used to give a quick preview of a much larger image.
TinyOS : is generally an open source component-based OS and is a platform that targets wireless sensor networks. It is an embedded OS that is written in NesC language for programming, as a set of various processes and cooperating tasks.
Toolbar : is a collection of buttons at the top of a window just below the title bar. A toolbar can be hidden or revealed with a toolbar option in the title bar.
Topology : A network topology is the arrangement of a network.
Transceiver : It actually means Transmitter/Receiver, it is device that sends and receives different signals over a particular medium. In networks, it is used generally for the connection between two dissimilar cable connectors, such as RJ-45 and AUI.
Trojan : A program appears pleasing but actually contains something very harmful. The contents of a Trojan can be a virus or a worm.
Troubleshooting : is the process of detecting and fixing hardware or software problems. The basic procedure of troubleshooting is to verify the most common problems first, and then slowly check the more specific problems. This offers a logical approach for problem solving.
Turbo C : is a Borland Integrated Development Environment and is a compiler for the C programming language. Turbo C has been widely superseded by Turbo C++, which was introduced in May, 1990, for both Windows and DOS and later by Borland C++.
UDP : it is an acronym for User Datagram Protocol; it is a simple protocol of the transport layer of the OSI model. It is basically used for client/server network applications that are based on the Internet Protocol. UDP is an alternative to TCP and is the oldest network protocols introduced in 1980.
USB (Universal serial bus) : used to connect peripheral devices such as a mouse to a computer.
Video Card : video cards are used to transfer data or information to the monitor so as to display it. Latest video cards have a many different "3D" capabilities. Whereas 3D video cards are just required for playing games. While playing these 3D games, the video card is one of the most important components.
Virus : A malicious computer program designed to cause damage.
VOIP(Voice over IP) : A technology that allows telephone calls to be placed over the Internet.
VPN(Virtual private network) : Software used to "tunnel" through the Internet to provide secure access to remote resources.
WAN : Wide area network, such as the Internet.
WAP (Wireless application protocol) : used to provide Internet capabilities, such as Web browsing, to "thin" wireless devices, such as mobile phones.
Web host : To publish your website online, you require a Web host. The Web host is used store all the pages of the website making them available to all the computers that are connected to the Internet.
Web Page is single file written on World Wide Web with the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). It usually contains text and specifications about where images or other files are to be placed when a browser displays the page. A webpage is a main part of a Web site. Every Web page is identified by a unique Uniform Resource Locator or URL.
Web Server : A Web Server is the computer that is on the World Wide Web that means it is connected to the Internet Backbone. And that stores all the HTML documents that are retrieved via any of the Web browsers.
Web Site is a collection of web pages, images, video and assets on World Wide Web. They are typically accessible from same URL. Each website contains a home page, which is the first document that is visible to users when they enter the site. They are generally formatted in HTML.
WEP (Wired equivalent privacy) : An encryption security standard built into the current versions of Wi-Fi.
Website Optimization : refers to optimizing the website to get higher ranks in search engines. It is also known a search engine optimization. It is art or science of making your web pages attractive to increase traffic to your website.
Wi-Fi ( wireless fidelity) : is the Wi-Fi Alliance's name for a wireless standard, or protocol, used for wireless networking using the 802.11 standards.
Wiki : A wiki is a Web site which allows the users to add new and even update the contents on the website by using their own Web browser. This is possible by Wiki software which runs on the Web server. A good example of a large wiki is Wikipedia, which is a free encyclopedia that comes in many languages and that can be edited by anyone.
Wildcat : is a BBS i.e. a bulletin board system and it is software package, which was developed by Mustang Software in 1986. It was introduced to construct a dial-up bulletin board system, working under PC-DOS. It was then later ported to Microsoft Windows.
Window Manager : A window manager refers to a program which acts as a graphical go-between the a user and an operating system. It offers a Graphical User Interface for the OS. Few operating systems integrate the window manager into their own internal code, but many do not for reasons of efficiency.
WinG : is an API which provides fast graphics performance on Windows 3.1. It was also built-in to Windows 95 later. In Win32, the counterpart of WinG functionality was provided via API calls that includes CreateDIBSection(), BitBlt(), SetDIBColorTable() and StretchBlt().
Wireless Networks refers to any kind of computer network that allows two or more computer to communicate without the use of cabling. It uses radio waves to transmit the signal between the sender and receiver.
Word Processor : A program which is designed to help out the production of various textual documents such as letters or memos. Some of the common word processors available include Open Office Write, MS-Word, WordPerfect, AppleWorks Write, GeoWrite and AbiWord.
Workstation : It is a general-purpose computer that is sufficiently small and inexpensive enough to reside at a users work area for his or her restricted use. It includes microcomputers such as Macintosh, and computers running DOS, as well as high-performance desktop computers.
Worm : It is a software program that have capacity to replicate itself. They can spread from one computer to another, all over the network. They take advantage of automatically sending and receiving of file features found on many computers.
X.25 : it is a standard protocol suite that is used for packet switching in computer networks. The X.25 protocols basically works at the three layers of OSI model the physical layer, data link layer as well as the network layer. Each packet of X.25 contains 128 bytes of data.
XAD : is an open source system that generally is a client based archiving and unarchiving system. There is one master library known as xadmaster.library that offers an interface between the user application and the client and there are clients handling this special archive format.
XBOX 360 : The Xbox 360 is a second video game console that is introduced by Microsoft, and is the beneficiary to Xbox. The Xbox 360 even offers some region specific access to the third-party medium streaming services like Sky TV in the UK or Netflix in the USA.
XCode : is an Apple Computer's (IDE) that is integrated development environment. It is for developing applications and software for Mac OS X. It is included for free with Mac OS X. it was first introduced in October 2003, along with the release of Mac OS X v10.3.
XDBX : is a GUI to the dbx debugger that comes under the X Window System. It provides mouse input and visual feedback for the user so as to control the program execution through breakpoints, as well as to examine and traverse function call stack, to display values of data structures and variables, and to access source functions and files.
XML TERM (Experimental Mozilla Terminal) : is a terminal program. XMLterm usually adds hypertext and even the graphical capabilities to Xterm interface by using the extensible markup language (XML). It is open source software and is basically implemented using open source Mozilla component libraries.
Y Windows : Also referred as Y Window System, it is a windowing system that consists of a windows server and also a client library for the purpose of writing applications. It is a successor to the X Window System
Zipping : generally refers to a process of compressing the files so that it takes up little storage space. These compressed files after they are zipped are called as zip filee. There are mainly two types of Zip files, normal and self-executing.
Zlib : is an open-source, a cross-platform library for data compression. It was introduced by Mark Adler and Jean-loup Gailly as one of the general-purpose abstraction for the DEFLATE compression algorithm basically used for their gzip file compression programs.